Friday, December 28, 2012

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History and Symbols mean Nike

In Greek mythology, Nike (meaning victory) that is associated with the goddess of victory and success. The Romans equated with the Goddess Nike Goddess Victoria. According to various fairy tales, Goddess Nike mentioned as the daughter of Pallas (Titan) and Styx (Water Goddess), the girl of Cratos, Bia and Zelus. Goddess Nike and Zeus brother and sister siblings came during the war against the Titans.

Nike is often depicted in paintings and sculpture winged. Most of the ancient Greek gods can spread its wings. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed and victory in war and in both matches. Nike is close friends with Athena (goddess of wisdom).

Nike is a Goddess who symbols used on syilling. Besides Nike symbol is also used for the first FIFA trophy which is known as the Jules Rimet trophy. Since 1928, the nike symbol is used for the summer Olympic medal, which is shown at the left hand holding a palm leaf and crown of victory right hands.

Leading sports company, Nike Inc.. take the name of the goddess Nike ...
Nike Inc. is one of the company's shoes, apparel and sporting goods Syarikat Americans who are distinguished in the world. They are famous sportman kerana sponsored several world famous like Tiger Woods, Ronaldo, Maria Sharapova and Michael Jordan etc..

Logo Design is named NIKE Swoosh. Nike "Swoosh" logo is a design that was created in 1971 by Carolyn Davidson, a graphic design student at Portland State University. has been used as a motif on sports shoes since the 1970's. Nike corporate logo design patents registered as trademarks in 1995.

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4 Country Strong World Fear America

1. North Korea
North Korea's military frightening specter for American. It is a country with a member of the 4th largest military on the planet, and spend a larger portion of its GDP utuk military budget than any other state. Also the existence of a secret nuclear weapons and are not recorded by the UN.
2. Iran
negara kuat di dunia yang ditakuti amerikaIt's easy to see why Americans fear Iran. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has threatened to wipe Israel off the map and said the United States is the real mastermind behind 9/11. And to this day Americans still give full attention to the actions and words of Ahmadinejad, which is why Ahmadinejad is still a very influential figure in the ranks of the U.S. eternal enemy. Although the military's annual budget is around nine billion dollars, which puts them in the order such as Greece and Australia. Iranian Nuclear power is something that can be a serious threat, was so serious as to CIA intervened to kill some Iranian Nuclear Expert.
3. China
negara kuat di dunia yang ditakuti amerikaAccording to The New York Post, America already owes China so much so that China could destroy the U.S. economy whenever they want. The media tends to portray America as a loser and China as brothers and sisters who continue to lend money. Although China still depends on the U.S. and there is also the assumption if they decide to withdraw the economic base in the United States, they will also drop its own economy because so much of China in the U.S. market. Keungulan in education of China, China began long beat United in educating their children, they even produce college graduates
4. Rusia
negara kuat di dunia yang ditakuti amerikaRussia has the world's highest number of weapons that landline number 79.985. 22 800 is Tank. Russia has a total of 526 Naval War Machine and has 3.888 udara.Kekuatan Russian forces are not as good as the predecessor of the Soviet Union has many Martian, now Russia has only one lone ship Admiral Kuznetsov indul and most Alutsistanya soviet-era relics, slowly, under the command of Vladimir Putin. Russia's pursuit of the title "Superpower" her again.


1. Battery
The battery is the drum section that marches on the field as a group. The battery usually consists of snare drums, bass drums, tenor drums, and cymbals.In the past, marching timpani were common before the adoption of the front ensemble, as were marching keyboard percussion instruments such asglockenspiels and xylophones. A relatively small number of bands, mostly at the college level, continue to field such traditional marching keyboard instruments; however, most bands have phased out their use. Marching steel pans are rarely part of drumlines due to issues with volume and durability. In modern marching band and drum corps- snares, tenors, bass drums, and sometimes cymbals march on the field and are generally referred to as the battery, while the pit (or front ensemble) is stationary in the front of the field. In other cases, marching units may place the pit in the back or behind the band because the band may be too small for them to station the pit in the front. Sometimes, the front ensemble may have a certain position on the field in order to create a desired visual effect.

2. Snare Drum
 snare drums have high-tension heads that manufacturers typically make out of Kevlar or PET film. In the past, snares were typically carried with slings. Due to the discomfort of this angle for the left hand, a new grip was created- traditional grip. Matched grip is used in the right hand and traditional grip in the left. The stick is held with the two fingers and the thumb above the stick and two below. Most modern snare drums have rigid over-the-shoulder harnesses that hold the drum with the playing surface parallel to the ground, which affords the option of performing with matched grip. Percussionists call this grip "matched grip" because both of the hands are in the same position (matched). There are, however, many groups that are returning to a slight tilt playing style in order to make using traditional grip more comfortable for the players.

Snare parts are typically unison and provide the center rhythm of the drumline. The snares are the center of tempo in the ensemble. The center snare player (a position typically held by the most experienced snare drummer) is responsible for maintaining the tempo. When rehearsing or performing, the center snare may "tap off" the ensemble, setting the tempo with a solo rhythm.
During a performance the snare line is the metronome for the band.[citation needed] Everyone relies on them, including the Drum Major, who gets the tempo from the snare line’s feet. Subdividing, otherwise known as "Dutting", or "verbal checks" are a common way for the drumline to keep time and help enter a phrase together. More often than not, the section leaders will subdivide (give verbal checks pronounced "dut"), however sometimes the whole line will. The purpose of dutting is so that everyone knows when to enter and stays on time. The first "dut" will always be on beat one, and usually consists of 4-8 "duts" before an entrance, although some times they may dut for multiple measures or counts, depending on what the drum captain or percussion section leader feels is necessary. An example of hearing a drumline "dut" would be to watch any drumline from a Drum & Bugle Corps, like The Cavaliers, Phantom Regiment, or any other corps, when their drumline performs "in the lot" this is usually just some practicing of excerpts or cadences, and are just played to a group of people as a sort of crowd-pleaser. A lot of the time, one will hear one or more people on a snare line "dut" just before they play. Usually, while dutting, they are also preparing their sticks to play again from the set position. Usually on the last 4 (or only 4, as the case may be) "duts" said, on the third (or second-to-last) "dut" they go from set position to playing and on the fourth dut, are in playing position and usually lifting the stick to play just after it.

3. Tenor Drum
Marching tenor drums (also called quads, tom-toms or multi-tenors) are single-headed tonal drums. Typically, they are referred to as tri-toms if there are three drums, quads if there are four, and so on for quints, and sextets. Modern tenor configurations usually have four to six drums, but there can be as few as one or as many as seven. Tenor players add pitch variety to the drumline with drums of different sizes. Tenor players use matched grip and generally play with mallets with plastic disc-shaped heads, though traditional drumsticks and softer mallets are commonly used to achieve different timbres.Tenor drummers typically play in unison. Recently, multiple percussion programs have experimented with "split" parts, meaning that the parts are not in unison. Some examples include Rhythm X's quad feature from 2007, The Cavaliers' quad features from 2000 and 2008, The Reading Buccaneers tenor solo from 2009, and many others. There are also single head tenor drums. They are typically used on the same drum form as a snare drum only without the snares on the bottom. Single tenor drums can also be tuned to have a high pitch so that a line of tenor percussionist can run split parts amongst them. Single head tenor drums are highly popular amongst the ranks of HBCU(Historically Black Colleges and Universities)drumlines where they are used on either the bases of being knee tenors(how snare drums are played) or upright tenors(how bass drums are played). For example, The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff(UAPB)Marching Musical Machine of the Mid-South's 2 Kold Krank tenor section uses the upright style single head tenor drums while their rivals, The Alabama State University(ASU)Mighty Marching Hornet's TTB tenor section incorporates the knee single head tenor drums. It is also widely known the HBCU percussion sections used both multiple and single head tenor drums.

4. Cymbals
Marching cymbals are typically pairs of crash cymbals ranging anywhere from 16 to 22 inches in diameter (which are commonly used, though other sizes are also utilized) and are played in a variety of ways. Cymbals are usually bronze and most often held with leather carrying straps. Players in a cymbal line may all carry the same size and type of cymbal, or a variety of instruments may be used. It is not uncommon, however, for each player in a cymbal line to have a different sized pair of cymbals than their peers because it is an efficient way to carry out different sounds and tones depending on what the music and/or percussion director calls for. Cymbal players usually play cymbals by holding and striking them together in front the body, in unison or in split parts. In addition to being played by the cymbal player, snare drummers may play on the cymbals as ride cymbals or like hi-hats, thus there is typically a minimum of one cymbal player for every two snare drummers.Cymbals are also used for visual effects due to their reflectiveness while twirling or spinning them. Some tricks include creating letters or shapes and even the "viper," a move in which a center cymbal player jumps and ducks as two cymbal players on each side swing cymbals above and below the jump. Many contemporary field ensembles do not utilize a cymbal line, instead having cymbals played within the front ensemble.

5. Bass Drum
Drumlines most frequently use pitched bass drums as tonal drums split between several percussionists. Marching bass drums, which produce the deepest sound in the battery, are larger drums carried on harnesses or straps with the heads facing to the left and right of the player. The musicians carrying the bass drums typically line up in drum size order. Bass drummers use mallets with rounded or cylindrical heads often made of hard felt. High school and Drum Corps drumlines typically consist of four or five members to ensure enough for a melody while College lines can have eight or more bass drummers. Sometimes, in smaller bands, one may see only 2 or 3 bass drummers perform.

Each drummer plays a unique part, though the entire bass drum part is conceived as a whole. This allows for a melodic passage to be carried throughout the bass drum line, having runs of notes that flow up or down the drums and in pitch. In addition to these "split" parts, bass drummers will also have unison notes, where everyone plays at the same time. In addition to the unison parts, a good bass line can often split 16th notes and even translate that into 32nd notes with the split.

6. Front ensemble
The front ensemble (also called the pit) can include any percussion instrument Typical front ensembles include mallet instruments such as marimbas, xylophones, glockenspiels, vibraphones,timpani, cymbals, concert bass drums, bongos, congas, cowbells, claves, tambourines, gongs, tom-tom drums, chimes, wind chimes, and in some cases drum sets. They may also include a variety of concert and world percussion instruments.Instruments may be mechanically or electronically amplified. Some competitive circuits also allow electronic instruments such as synthesizers and bass guitars, which are typically part of the front ensemble. This wide selection of instruments allows for great timbre variety. Most front ensembles are centered in front of the front sideline of an American football field. However, for aesthetic purposes, some bands choose to put the front ensemble elsewhere on the field to better to suit the shows theme.
In indoor drumline competitions, however, various groups may not necessarily place the front ensemble at the "front" as the name suggests. Rather, the show designers determine placement of the front ensemble by where they would get the best sound quality, depending on the music being played.

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Thursday, December 27, 2012

Facts About Music Death Metal

Death metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music that evolved from thrash metal in the early 1980s. Some of his trademark song is the theme of violence or death, low rhythm guitar (downtuned rhythm guitars), rapid percussion, and dynamic intensity. Vocals are usually sung by grunt (grunt dipopuler his death in the late 80s) or growling death (death growl dipopuler right at the end of 80s) with the sound of throat (guttural / gurgle). "These are some unique facts about the Death Metal:

1. Kekompleksitasan Music
Although the voice - a voice hoarse and rough guitar sometimes - sometimes disturbing our hearing (especially for those who are only familiar with soft music), sound - the sound was more than just noise idiot. There are melodies, patterns, and komplektisitas to be realized and appreciated if we have enough time. Maybe this will be a little poking Malay music fanatic lovers homeland.

2. Difficulty To Learn
When someone with a basic background music can instantly learn to play pop music, to learn music Death Metal that takes longer. In comparison, the same may require watu to learn to play Death Metal with learning classical music or jazz. Comparison, look at the solo from Bury Torture and miss band. Compare, then it would be very noticeable difference.

For percussive instruments, the Death Metal drumming is very technical and precise. It takes time for a drummer bertahun2 Death Metal to achieve sufficient skill to play a rhythm pattern so complex that the tempo that sounds impossible. Most of the percussive elements in popular music (with the exception of Jazz) is very simple and sometimes - sometimes just an electronic music played by a musician who is not "real". This is what is sold to the public. For those who are more interested in the skill, Jazz and Death Metal offers a more exciting treats to enjoy talent guitar and drums.

3. The exploratory stage action
Look at how the musicians who play instruments Death Metal is exploratory. If you try to play it yourself, you will realize that Death Metal musicians are musicians - musicians are very talented. Learn it takes practice and dedication, which remove the metalhead stereotype that is people - people who are lazy. You might also be impressed how energetic the kids - children Death Metal. Do not expect a Death Metal on the show - a show like Dahsy * t, HipHipHu * a, Derin * s, and so on.

4. Occurs rarely Plagiarism
In Death Metal, almost every musician always write their own music. Includes riffs, drum, solo, and lyrics. Writing your own music another dimension of expertise proved instrumental musicians, make music more personal and not 'market'. Rarely Encountered cases of plagiarism or mutual claims Death Metal song.

5. Having Lyrics The Fictional
Do not look at the music from a personal context or subject. Most of the lyrics in Death Metal is fiction and not to be followed. So do not assume what you hear in the music is serious Death Metal. Lyrics - the lyrics were just shedding the emotions of a musician on the song. Maybe the lyrics sound disrespectful and cruel, about zombies, serial killers, or suicide. But it - it is the fact yangg parcel of human life. So is it wrong for a musician to record the incidence of death metal - a fictional event into a song? Actually, a lot of death metal musicians who take the theme of folklore, social or religious issues and history.

6. Having Many Sub-Genres

Not all death metal together. This genre encompasses many sub-genres that sometimes - sometimes mixed with each other. As a result, it is difficult to describe a band with only one sub-genre. The following list of common sub-genre:

Blackened - Adopting the theme and elements of black metal music. Example: Behemoth

Brutal - Example: Spawn of possession, Suffocation, Deicide, Dying Fetus, Obituary, Cannibal Corpse

Doom - Tempo that slower, melancholic atmosphere, that growl deeper and double drum pedal. Example: Autopsy, Sepultura

Deathcore - Drum quick, down tuned guitars, tremolo picking, scream, growl, melodic riffs and breakdowns. All Shall Perish example, Job for a Cowboy, God forbid

Grind - Intense, short music, screaming vocals more prominent. Example: Carcass

Jazz fusion - Example: Atheist, Cynic

Melodic - Harmony guitar and vocal melodies with steeper. Example: Arch Enemy, At The Gates, Soilwork, In Flames, Amon Amarth, Children of Bodom

Symphonic - Example: Nightfall, Eternal Tears of Sorrow

Technical / Progressive - dynamic song structures, time signatures, harmony, and melody is not common. Example: Nile, Necrophagist, Death

7. Perspective and Thought Patterns Death Metal Musicians
Despite having the lyrics and the music that spelled "weird", it is a form of the musicians are describing what is to be conveyed in the music. average Death Metal musicians are people who have the mindset, perspective, and insight, this is one factor that makes the lyrics and rhythm of the song Death Metal is very difficult to understand because a lot of the language that is "heavy". If you are a person familiar with melow terms, and are in the same situation every day do not expect to understand or enjoy Death Metal music.

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Wednesday, December 26, 2012


A forest is an area with a dense overgrown by trees and other vegetation. Such areas are in the vast areas of the world and serves as a reservoir of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide sink), animal habitats, hidrologika flow modulators, and soil conservers, and is one aspect of the Earth's most important biosphere.
Forests are life forms that spread throughout the world. We can find a nice forest in tropical and cold climates, in the lowlands and in the mountains, on a small island and the continent.
The forest is a collection of herbs and plants, especially trees or other woody plants, which occupy large areas.
The tree itself is high enough plant life to years. So, is different vegetables or grains that live one season only. The tree also is noticeably different because a principal has a long upright woody and form canopy (crown leaves) is clear.
A collection of trees is considered forest if able to create a climate and environmental conditions of local specialties, which is different than in the outer regions. If we were in a tropical rain forest, it was like coming into a warm, moist steam, which is different than the surrounding farming areas. The landscape was different. This means that all the other plants and animals (up to the smallest detail), and various other non-living elements, including the parts that are an integral constituent of the forest.
Forest as an ecosystem not only save natural resources such as timber, but still a lot of potential non-timber that can be taken advantage of by society through the cultivation of agricultural crops on forest land. As a function of forest ecosystems play an important role in many aspects such as the provider of water, producing oxygen, where millions live flora and fauna, and the role of balancing the environment and prevent global warming. As a function of the water provider for the life of the forest is one of the most important, this is because the forest is growing millions of plants.

Forest fragments

Imagine slicing a cross forest. Forest seemed to consist of three parts, the above ground parts of the surface of the ground, and the underground.
If we trace the forest on the ground, it will show the canopy (crown) of trees, stems kekayuan, and lower plants such as shrubs and bushes. In natural forests, canopy trees usually look layered as there are different types of trees that began growing at different times.
On the surface, it appears a variety of shrubs, grasses, and litter. Litter is also called 'forest floor', though it is more akin to the tapestry. Litter is glowing all the trunks, branches, leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruit. Litter has an important role as a source of humus, which is the top layer of soil is fertile. Litter is also a home to various insects and micro-organisms. Interestingly, the residents actually eat litter, it's their home; crushing All plants and animals in the world, as well as humans, have to adapt to the environment in which they are located. If a particular type of plant or animal can adapt to the physical environment in a particular area, then they will be able to thrive in the area. If not, they are knocked out of place. For example, we find mangroves in shallow sea water inundation areas for tree species is resistant to salt water and having breathing roots are in accordance with the nature of the soil and hot climate of the coast.
Conversely, how many plants and animals survive will affect their physical environment, particularly land, albeit on a limited basis. Plants and animals that share the same life even more interplay between them. To be able to survive in a particular environment, a variety of plants and animals must choose between competing and fellowship. Birds herons, for example, wild bison descend back to get lice as food. In contrast, wild bison helped because he was free from the source of the disease.
Thus, forests are life forms that thrive with very distinctive, complex, and dynamic. In the end, how all the constituent forests adapt to each other will result in some form of climax, a form of plant and animal communities best suited to the environment are available. As a result, we saw the climax forest in different form, for example: savannah forest, deciduous forest, tropical rainforest, and others.

Types of Forests

Foresters try to classify forests according to their distinctive Visibility. The aim is to enable people to recognize the distinctive nature of the forest. By identifying the real nature of a forest, we will treat the forest more accurately so that the forest can be sustainable, even growing.
There are different types of forest. Differentiation forest types also vary as well. For example:
According to the original
We know the forest comes from the seeds, buds, and a mixture of seeds and buds.
Forest derived from the seeds of so-called 'high forest' because the trees are grown from seed tend to be higher and can reach more advanced age.
Forest from bud-called 'low forest' for the opposite reason.
Mixed forest, therefore, called 'forests being'.
Another classification is according to the original
Virgin forest (primary) is the pristine forests and has not been opened by humans.
Secondary forest is a forest that grows back naturally after a cut or damage is quite extensive. As a result, secondary forest trees often look shorter and smaller. However, if left undisturbed for a long time, we will be hard to distinguish the secondary forest from primary forest. Under appropriate conditions, the secondary forest will be able to recover a primary forest after hundreds of years old.
By way of regeneration (regrowth)
Forests can be distinguished as a forest with natural regeneration, artificial regeneration, and the regeneration mix. Forests with natural regeneration means flower trees and acorns scattered diserbuk not by man, but by wind, water, or animals. Forest regeneration by artificial means man accidentally pollinate flowers and disperse seeds to regrow forest. Mixed forest with regeneration means a mixture of the two previous types.
In temperate regions, flowering occurs in a short time, often do not take place every year, and more through wind pollination. In the tropics, flowering occurs most of the year and almost every year. As an exception, inflorescence dipterocarp trees (meranti) in Kalimantan and Sumatra happens regularly. In particular, simultaneous flowering meranti wood, but in subsequent years meranti did not bloom. Meranti wood flower season is an opportunity to see the seeds of meranti which has a pair of wings to hover in the wind.
According to the arrangement of the type
Based on the arrangement of its kind, we know the type of forest and mixed forest. Forest type, or a pristine forest, trees that have mostly come from one type, although this does not mean there is only one type. Forests can grow naturally kind of good because the climate and soil properties that are difficult or because of certain tree species more aggressive. For example, tusam forest (pine) in Aceh and Kerinci formed by extensive forest fires have occurred and only tusam tree species survive. Forests can also be a kind of artificial forest, which is only one or a few key species such deliberately planted by humans, as has been done in the fields HTI (forest plantations).
Another classification is based on the order type of needle leaf forest (conifers) and broad leaf forest. Needle leaf forest (such as the pine forests) are generally found in colder climates, while broadleaf forests (such as meranti wood) usually found in the tropics.
According to age
We can distinguish forests as forests age (roughly the same age) and not the rest of the forest. Natural forests and forest natural regeneration is usually not rest. Forest plantation forests may rest or not the rest of the forest.
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Based on geographical location:
tropical forests, the forests in equatorial
temperate forests, the forests in the four seasons (between latitudes 23.5 º - 66 º).
boreal forest, forest in the polar circumference.
Based on seasonal properties:
rain forest (rainforest), with lots of rainy season.
evergreen forests (evergreen forest)
monsoon forest or deciduous leaves (deciduous forest)
savanna forest (forest savannah), in places kemaraunya season long. Etc..
forest tour
By the height of the place:
coastal forests (forest beach)
lowland forest (Lowland forest)
lower montane forest (sub-mountain forest)
upper montane forests (mountain forest)
forest fog (mist forest)
elfin forest (alpine forest)
Based on the terrain:
freshwater swamp forest or swamp forest (freshwater swamp-forest)
peat swamp forest (peat-swamp forest)
mangrove swamp forest, or mangrove (mangrove forest)
Forest Heath (heath forest)
forest soil lime (limestone forest), and others
Based on the dominant tree species:
teak wood (teak forest), for example, in East Java.
pine forests (pine forest), in Aceh.
dipterocarp forest (dipterocarp forest), in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
eucalypt forests (eucalyptus forest) in Nusa Tenggara. Etc..
Based on the properties of manufacture:
natural forest (natural forest)
forests of artificial (man-made forest), for example:
forests (community forest)
urban forest (urban forest)
plantations (timber or timber plantation estates) Etc.

Forest City in Singapore
Based on the management goals:
production forests, which are managed to produce timber or non-timber forest products (non-timber forest products)
forests, managed to protect soil and water management
National Parks
forest nature reserve, managed to protect biodiversity or natural beauty
forest conversion, which is a reserved forest for other uses, can be converted to non-forest management.

Arjuna mountain slopes in areas Sumberawan, Singosari district, Malang regency
In fact, often several distinguishing factors that join and build the properties of typical forest. For example, lowland tropical rainforest (Lowland tropical rainforest), or a hill dipterocarp forest (hilly dipterocarp forest). Community forests, often constructed in the form of a mixture of forest plants with short-term crops, thus referred to as agroforestry or agroforest.

8 Differences Windows 8 with Windows 7

What are the difference Here are eight differences Windows 8 with Windows 7, as quoted by Tech Radar, Tuesday (30/10).
1. Features Touch Screen
The most basic of Windows 8 with Windows 7 is the touch screen feature. Actually in Windows 7 has none of these features, it's just less than the maximum. To that end, Windows 8 was created as a complement touch screen Windows 7. For those who do not have a PC with touch screen features, you need not worry. Therefore, this feature can be operated on at a normal PC with the help of the trackpad from Microsoft to be able to detect a touch of the users.
2. Screen or the Start Button
Unlike Windows 7, the Start button in Windows 8 hidden. This button works similar to the Home screen on Windows Phone and only appears when you point your mouse arrow or mouse to the bottom left corner.
3. Multi-Monitor Feature Better
A few of us there that use more than one monitor to one PC. However, this requires a good desktop management. Now you can open the Start screen on one monitor and the desktop on the other monitor. You can even have a background that is different from one monitor to the other monitor.
4. Features Charms
Windows 8 Charms feature that has not been installed in Windows 7. With this feature, you can access the menu Search, Share, Devices and Settings just by pointing the mouse to the right of the screen.
5. Search and Social Windows 8
In addition to features Charms, Search menu can also be done in the Start menu as in Windows 7. In Windows 8, you can easily and quickly access social networks, because of the application of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn are already contained in the display automatically. In fact, you can receive immediate notification of social networking.
6. Have Windows 8 ARM Devices
If the previous Windows only supports PCs with AMD or Intel x86-based, now Windows 8 can also be used in some devices that use ARM. This is done to be able to compete with the iPad and Android tablets. However, only Windows 8 type RT (Run Time) who have these ARM devices.
7. Windows Store
Windows Store is a major part of Windows 8, which provides a wide range of applications, both free and paid. You can open the Store menu with Charms as described previously. If the application has had to be updated, you can easily download, easy to update applications on iOS or Android.
8. Cloud Features Windows 8
Now, there is a feature in Windows 8 Cloud. With this feature, you can synchronize your data to the application Skydrive. In addition, you can also save your data from or to Skydrive. (ANS)

What Difference Windows 7 and Windows 8 ?

, Windows 7 is Microsoft's operating system has become the most widely used. With the launch of Windows 8 on Friday (10/26/2012), is the dominance of the Windows 7 operating system will come to an end?

How can I get Windows 8 could win from Windows 7? One way that can be used by Microsoft is to "force" Windows 7 users to switch to Windows 8.

To make Windows 7 users to switch to Windows 8, Microsoft provides several strategies. One way is to present a variety of features that are not owned by Windows 7.

Windows 8 does have hundreds of new features, such as a faster boot time, airplane mode (all things related to radio, such as WiFi and 3G will be turned off when using this mode), the function copy / move / paste the claimed better anti default-virus (Windows Defender with all the features of Microsoft Security Essentials), using images as a password, and much more.

Unfortunately, the "Windows XP mode" in Windows 7 has been removed in Windows 8.

Features Windows DVD Maker had already disappeared from Windows 8.

To see the difference between Windows 7 and Windows 8 in terms of features, please refer to the table below.

5 Characters Innovators

Interesting read a book written by Carmine Gallo titled Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs (The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs). Which makes it interesting is that Carmine Gallo not only tells the story of how Steve Jobs to innovate, but also outlines how the other innovators struggling to generate great works that are useful to humans. Gallo also managed to present a common thread, gather important characters that must be owned by an innovator. With these characters, the innovators move and fight that could eventually produce the works of the legendary innovations in the world. In this paper I present the 5 characters that must be owned by the innovators, who I rangkumkan of writing Carmine Gallo and a few other ideas from my writings. This material also I have said in the seminar on Technopreneurship at several campuses.


Steve Jobs is the best example of how she loves what she does. In 1976, Steve Jobs founded Apple, 10 years later he was expelled from the company he founded himself. Do not give up, keep fighting Jobs slowly build company called Next. The next step to acquire the computer division of Lucasfilm grahics, which later was named Pixar. Pixar hands and finally drove the success of the legendary animated works such as Toy Story. Eventually joined Pixar to Disney, where Jobs became Disney's largest shareholder. With conditions such success, Jobs still decided to return to Apple in 1996, to save the company he founded that his condition was nearly destroyed. In two years, Jobs managed to turn Apple into a nearly bankrupt company that has profit. One of the famous phrase Jobs when asked, why could survive with all this, "The only thing keeping me going was that I loved what I did." Yes when we love what we do, no one can make us give up the fight.

Love and passion is also what makes James Dyson willingly experimented for more than 5 years, and have 5126 failure to make dual cyclone vacuum cleaner without a bag. When it finally was, Dyson still be disappointed because no one vacuum cleaner manufacturer in the UK, the country of his birth, which would adopt his work. Until finally forced self-produced and sold not in England, but in a country that is far from reaching Japan.

Eli Harari, who earned a PhD from Princeton University in the field of semiconductors, also had made a big mistake by trying to innovate to make a fishing pole. Though Harari did not like fishing and never even go fishing. Innovation ended in fiasco. When Harari decided to re-cultivate the field he loved, was born USB flash memory innovation is legendary to this day, who founded the company SanDisk deliver them. Harari himself eventually dubbed the father of the famous and flash.

Google is a company that understands that love and passion can make a person productive. The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin makes policy Innovation Time Off, where the employee may allocate 20% of their work time to do the work they love and become their passion. And a few years later, the reality proves that the Innovation Time Off which is only 20% of the formal labor time, managed to generate more than 50% of new Google products and services today.


The vision of life to leave footprints in the universe is also a mandatory character for the innovators. Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook said that, all he is doing is not about making money, facebook was made for the world to be open to anyone, by connecting the social attributes of each person who created an account there.

When Steve Wozniak founded Apple with Steve Jobs in 1976, said that, their vision is to change the world by producing computers for ordinary people. Computers for ordinary people, is a vision and a dream that is too big in 1976. Because at that time the computer is not allowed to use the layman, there is no user interface in addition to an adequate, not many applications for daily use, as well as its physical size is very, very large.

Vision is important to leave a trail when we observe how Xerox could have mastered all the information technology industry in the era of the 1970s. Because they are a pioneer in almost all advanced products in the world of information technology. The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) is already successfully developed an application-based graphical user interface (GUI) and mouse device, which in that era, no one has managed to produce. Instead Steve Jobs visit to PARC which eventually became the world's most historic visit industrial PC (personal computer), because Steve Jobs was the one who ultimately can innovate with products cheat Xerox PARC for Apple product development computer vision that could be used for the common man. Steve Jobs said that if Xerox had a vision to leave a mark on the universe, the conditions will be different this time. Instead, Adele Goldberg, one of the founder and Xerox executives say that, "allow Steve Jobs visited Xerox PARC was the worst decision in the history of the corporation in the world".

3. Squeeze BRAIN

No man is stupid, because the human brain that weighs 1 kg, it only consumes less than 1% of the human being, and only 4-5% by human genius like Albert Einstein. The remaining 95-99% of our brain that we use only and not idle. We must realize that we have not been up to use our brains. Ignorance is not because we do not have the capacity to be clever, ignorance is our unwillingness to learn and work hard. The story of Adam Khoo's life in his book "I am gifted and so are you ...", reminds us that there's no stupid people in this world. Adam Khoo as SD scores always bad and labeled stupid, then slowly got up and managed to become number one in junior high, high school and university, until the effort and learn the rigors managed to become the youngest billionaire at the age of 25 years in Singapore.

Aaron Stern even taking steps to remedy insane prove that it was not born a genius, but a genius can be created. The study was conducted with the object of research of his own daughter named Edith Stern. Edith was born brought up in sterile environments that support to make a comeback. As a result, Edith managed to finish reading the Encyclopedia Britannica at age 5, has an IQ of 200, and get a PhD in mathematics at the age of 15 years. Edith Project was initiated by Aaron Stern proves that human intelligence can be trained to achieve a higher level. Once again there is no person in this world who are stupid, there are people who do not want to try and work hard.


Roger Wolcott Sperry, one of neurology experts say that the human brain consists of two hemispheres, the right brain and the left brain, which has a different function. The left brain tends to deal with things logical, algorithmic and mathematical, while taking care of the right brain intuition and imagination. Intelligent human beings are human beings who can combine the left and right brain. Many people think that should always think logically, when in fact, business decisions are often incurred by using instinct and intuition are in fact using the right brain. Even Albert Einstein was a genius who can be said in science and exact sciences, said that imagination is more important than knowledge. With the imagination of the right brain, Einstein could freely without limits formulate various theories that exist beyond the reach of human logic at the time.

Steve Jobs also relies on the concept of thinking differently to balance the left and right brain when developing Apple products. Apple launched the iPod, the music player device, which is actually a common product and has been there before. The difference with other music players product is the ability to connect an iPod Jobs with music sales service which he built is called iTunes. Association iPod device and iTunes are creative ideas that in his time no one has tried to develop it.


Character recent innovators is the ability to convey a message. Communications expert Gregory Berns said that one could have a good idea of ​​the new and different, but all will be in vain if you can not convince a lot of people. One factor that makes us able to convince others is when we are able to change the language difficult technique into language that is easily understood by ordinary people.

Marc Russell Benioff, Salesforce founder, a company engaged in the field of cloud application services using attractive terms for manusiakan discusses cloud computing terminology. The end of software, such jargon Salesforce. Benioff wanted to show that the normal way to sell software is complete, and now it's time to sell the software as a service (software as a service). With this, using the software is the same condition as we use electricity or telephone. We just need to pay the rent of the service (software) that we use on a periodic basis, either monthly or yearly.

When launching the iPad, Steve Jobs does not use words that are difficult and sophisticated technique, he just said that, "The iPad is a magical tool is revolutionary in an astounding price." When it introduced the MacBook Air, Jobs also just says "MacBook Air is the world's thinnest notebook". Steve Jobs presented the iPod with the language, "iPod, a thousand songs in your pocket". According to research conducted by Todd Bishop, the phrase used by Steve Jobs has a fog index between 5-7, while other IT luminaries such as Bill Gates has a fog index of 9-11. Fog index is the number of years of education required of a reader to understand a word. Imagine 6th grade elementary school children had no trouble following the speech of Steve Jobs!

Weapon in Pencak Silat

In addition to empty hand fighting, martial arts also recognize a variety of weapons. among other things:
1. Kris: a small knife stabbing weapon-shaped, often with a wavy blade made ​​by folding different types of metal together and then washing in acid.
2. Cleaver: typical Sundanese blade
3. Side / Linso: silk scarf worn around the waist or shoulder, used in locking techniques and for defense against a knife.
4. Galah: stick made ​​of wood, steel or bamboo.
5. Cindai: fabric, usually used as a sarong or wrapped as head gear. Traditional women cover their heads with cloth that can be converted into cindai.
6. Tongkat / Toya: walking stick carried by the elderly, travelers and travelers.
7. Fan: traditional folding fans skeleton can be made ​​of wood or iron.
8. Kerambit / Kuku Machan: A blade shaped like a tiger's claws that can be inserted in the woman's hair.
9. Crescent / sickle: a sickle, commonly used in agriculture, cultivating and harvesting crops.
10. Sundang: a double edge sword Bugis, often wavy-bladed
11. Rencong: a slightly curved dagger Aceh
12. Pepper Mash: small dagger is also slightly curved like rencong, literally means "destroyer of pepper".
13. Gada: blunt weapon made ​​of steel.
14. Spear: javelin made ​​of bamboo, steel or wood that sometimes has feathers attached near the blade.
15. Parang / Machete: short sword used in everyday tasks such as combing the forest cutting.
16. Trident: three sula or three-pronged weapon
17. Chabang / Branch: short-handled trident, literally meaning "branch".

The term in Pencak Silat

  1. Kuda - Kuda is the position of the foot tread to strengthen the position of the body. The horses were strong and sturdy it is important to maintain the position of the body that are not easily dropped. Horse-riding is also important to resist the urge or a basic starting point of attack (kick or punch)
  2. Attitude and Motion: Pencak Silat system is composed of attitudes (positions) and gestures (movements). When a fighter moves when fighting stance and movements change with the change in the opposite positions on an ongoing basis. Soon after finding weaknesses opponent's defense, then fighters will try to beat your opponent with a fast attack.
  3. Langkah : The hallmark of Silat is the use of a step. This step is important in martial arts game is good and right. There are some recognizable patterns of steps, for example, step three and step four.
  4. Kembangan is the hand movements and gestures made ​​with care, wary of the enemy's movements, as well as enemy lurks gap. The main development is usually done at the beginning of the game and be  to anticipate the attack or deceive the enemy. Often motion resembles a dance or martial arts development in the Sunda maenpo like ngibing (jig). Development is one of the main assessment in the arts of martial arts that promotes the beauty of the movement.
  5. Buah : Pencak Silat has a range of a lot of defense and attack techniques. Traditionally the term of this technique can be likened to the fruit. Ordinary fighter uses hands, elbows, arms, legs, knees and feet in the attack. Common techniques including kicks, punches, blocks, sweep, locking, throwing, holding, breaking joints, and others.
  6. Jurus : fighters practice moves. Kick is a series of basic movements for the upper body and lower, which is used as a guide to mastering the use of advanced techniques of martial arts (fruit), as done for practice singly or in pairs. Using a step, or a small body movements, teaches the use of setting foot. When combined, that Basic Pasan, or flow throughout the body.
  7. Sapuan and Guntingan is one type of fruit (engineering) dropped the enemy by attacking enemy horses, which kicked off with sweeping or clamp (cut) leg enemy, so the enemy off balance and fall.
  8. Kuncian is a technique to knock out your opponent so helpless, unable to move, or to disarm the enemy. Lockdown involves avoiding movement, trickery, and fast movements that usually target the wrists, arms, neck, jaw, or shoulder enemy.

Monday, December 24, 2012

Need For Speed

Nfs-logo.pngNeed for Speed (NFS) is a series of racing video games published by Electronic Arts (EA) and developed by several studios including Canadian-based company EA Black Box and British-based Criterion Games. It was originally developed by the Canadian-based company Distinctive Software, which became known as EA Canada.
The series released its first title, The Need for Speed in 1994. Initially, Need for Speed was exclusive to the fifth generation video game consoles, eventually featuring in all seventh generation consoles by 2008. The titles consist of racing with different cars on various tracks, with some titles including police pursuits in races. Since Need for Speed: Underground, the series has integrated car body customization into gameplay.
Need for Speed is the most successful racing video game series in the world, and one of the most successful video game franchises of all time. As of October 2009, over 100 million copies of games in the Need for Speed series have been sold.
In June 2012 it was announced that Criterion Games are in full control of the Need for Speed franchise, following Black Box's restructuring. It is also announced that a movie based on the series is in production, scheduled to be released in February 2014.


The Need for Speed (NFS) series are racing games, all of which employ the same fundamental rules and have similar mechanics. In each game, the player controls a race car in a variety of races, the goal being to win the race. In the tournament/career mode, the player must win a series of races in order to unlock vehicles, tracks, etc. Before playing each race, the player chooses a vehicle to race in and has the option of choosing the transmission of the vehicle, which includes automatic and manual transmission. All games in the series have some form of multiplayer mode allowing players to race one another via split screen, LAN or the Internet.
Although the games share the same name, the tone and focus of the games has varied significantly, in one form or another. For example, in some games the cars can suffer mechanical and visual damage, while in other games the cars cannot be damaged at all, some games have physics—that is, the way the software simulates a real car behavior—that are reminiscent of a real car, while other games have forgiving physics (i.e. going through some curves at top speed).
With the release of Need for Speed: Underground, the series shifted focus from the racing of exotic sports cars on scenic point-to-point tracks, evocative of open road racing to import/tuner subculture, and street racing in an urban setting. To-date, this theme has remained prevalent in most of the following games.
Need for Speed: Shift and especially its sequel took a simulator approach to racing. These games primarily feature closed-circuit racing on real tracks like the Nürburgring and the Laguna Seca, and fictional street circuits in cities like London and Chicago. In addition, the drag and drift modes from the street-racing games are kept and presented as professional sports (such as Formula Drift). There is a strong focus on the FIA GT1 World Championship and the FIA GT3 European Championship. The car lists include a combination of exotics, sports cars, and tuners in addition to special race cars. With Shift 2: Unleashed, EA has decided to split this off into a separate racing series, though it is not known whether further sequels will be produced.
Most of the games in the franchise include police pursuits in some form or other. In the first game, the player races against the X-Man, the objective is to beat him without getting arrested. In some of the games featuring police pursuit, the player can play as either the felon or the cop; as a felon, the player must elude the police, or if playing as the cop, must pursue and capture the felon.Introduced in Need for Speed: Underground were the concepts of drifting and dragging, which are used in drift and drag racing, respectively. These new mechanics are included in the tournament/career mode aside from the regular street races. In drift races, the player must defeat other racers by setting higher points than the other racers; these points are earned by the length and timing of the drift made by the player's vehicle. In drag races, the player uses a car set in manual transmission. The objective in this type of race is to follow an opposing car and mimic its performance to gain a boost in the player's speed. Like an ordinary street race, the player must finish first to win the race, though if the player crashes into an obstacle, the race ends.
The concept of car tuning evolved with each new game. In the earlier games in the series, it focused mainly on the mechanics of the car rather than the looks of it. Every game has some form of car tuning that can be set by toggling options on and off (i.e. ABS, or traction control), adjusting options (i.e. front downforce, rear downforce, brake bias, gear ratios) or upgrading parts (i.e. engine, gearbox). From Underground to the current game, customization of vehicles is similar to the vehicles depicted in the 2001 film The Fast and the Furious. The two categories in which the player can choose to modify his cars are visual and performance. Visual tuning of the player's car becomes an important aspect in tournament/career mode after the release of Need for Speed: Underground 2. The player's car appearance is rated using a scale from zero to ten points; the more visual points it has, the more likely it is to be featured in fictional automobile magazines. When a car attains a high enough visual rating, the player is told that their vehicle is eligible to be on the cover of a magazine; thereafter, the player must drive to a specific location to take the photo of the vehicle.
Like all racing games, the Need for Speed series features an extensive list of cars that are available for the player to use. The vehicles included in the game are modeled and named after actual cars in real life. Cars in the franchise are divided into four categories, exotic cars, muscle cars, tuners, and special vehicles. Exotic cars feature high performance, expensive European cars like theLamborghini Murciélago and Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren with some American models like Chevrolet Corvette and Ford GT; muscle cars refer to mostly American cars such as the Ford Mustang,Dodge Challenger and the Chevrolet Camaro; while tuner cars are mostly Japanese-imported cars like the Nissan Skyline and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution. The special vehicles are civilian and police cars that are available for use in some games, either directly or through hacking, such as the Ford Crown Victoria in Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit (2010 video game) and garbage trucks, fire engines and taxis in Need for Speed: Carbon.
Originally the series took place in international settings, such as race tracks in Australia, Europe, and Africa among other settings. Beginning with Underground, the series has taken place in fictionalmetropolitan cities.The first game featured traffic on "head to head" game mode and on later games traffic can be toggled on and off at the options screen. Starting with Underground, traffic is a fixed obstacle added during a race.The 2010 remake of Hot Pursuit was the first to include real-life cars such as the Chevrolet Cobalt and Porsche Cayenne as traffic cars, instead of fictional models in previous games.

Development and spin-off series

The Need for Speed series was originally developed by Distinctive Software, a video game studio based in Vancouver, Canada. Prior to Electronic Arts' purchase of the company in 1991, it had already created popular racing games such as Stunts and Test Drive II: The Duel. After the purchase was made, the company was renamed Electronic Arts (EA) Canada. The company capitalized on its experience in the domain when it began developing the Need for Speed series in late 1992 EA Canada continued to develop and expand the Need for Speed franchise up to 2002, when another Vancouver-based gaming company, named Black Box Games, was contracted to continue the series with the title Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit 2. Black Box Games was acquired by Electronic Arts shortly before the game's publication and the company was renamed Electronic Arts (EA) Black Box and became a subsidiary of EA Canada. Since its renaming, EA Black Box has been the series primary developer and was on a yearly cycle from 2002-2008. EA contacted UK-based gaming company Slightly Mad Studios after the franchise began to decline in both sales and quality, and to create a bi-annual cycles with alternate between several studios. In 2009, Slightly Mad Studios released Need for Speed: Shift, and EA's own UK-based gaming company Criterion Games came with Hot Pursuit in 2010. In 2011, Slightly Mad Studios released a sequel to ShiftShift 2: Unleashed and EA Black Box released Need for Speed: The Run after their universally poor received 2008 entry Need for Speed: Undercover.
When V-Rally was released in 1997, it was developed by the European based company, Eden Studios, and had nothing in common with the preceding Need for Speed games. EA however, bought the rights to title of the game and produced it in North America as Need for Speed: V-Rally. Eden Studios would develop V-Rally 2 in Europe, while EA would publish it in North America as Need for Speed V-Rally 2V-Rally 2 however, followed the same formula as the other Need for Speed titles. In 1999, EA announced plans to make a spin-off of the Need for Speed series with the release ofNeed For Speed Motor City. The game however, was later confirmed that it would be included into the Need for Speed franchise and the spin-off series was never produced, and the game was renamed as Motor City Online.

Arts College Tadjimalela, Indonesia

Tadjimalela is an ancestor of Sunda. Besides, not many people know that the name of a college Tadjimalela arts based in Bandung, West Java. Our initial introduction to the arts Tadjimalela time 2 years ago. We visited Abah Iyan (Alm close calls. R. Iyan Koesoemahdinata, former Chairman PS Tadjimalela). At his house we saw with our eyes a martial arts demo Tadjimalela. Peraganya is Cecelia Kang (close calls from Tjetjep Sadikin, senior coach Tadjimalela). Only about 10 minutes kang Cecelia issued 
Tadjimalela.Gerakannya moves very agile, fast, effective and powerful. Wow! We were all amazed. Imagine moves are simple, brief but deadly. Not a lot of style and a waste of time. Straightforward. Especially when using a cleaver on Cecelia Kang demo using the tool. We were watching fascinated, not speaking a word. We feel the energy of this martial art movements, very large. We sweat so come and join eagerly. This is a nationwide arts revolution! Since then we find out more about the arts Tadjimalela.

History of Education Silat Tadjimalela
Sejarah tadjimalela Kang Djadjat-shangkalaTadjimalela arts college was established on August 4, 1974 by R. Djadjat Koesoemahdinata or better known as Kang Djadjat Paramour.
Tadjimalela name is taken from one of the name of a King / King of the kingdom bans Sumedang, West Java. Digunakanya Tadjimalela name is because,  to genealogy, R. Djadjat Koesoemahdinata still have a relative of the family prabu. Additionally Tadjimalela names obtained through a process of contemplation and munajat Allah SWT.
Starting from dissatisfaction Kang Djadjat in learning martial arts, which at the time was only given ibingnya art of a master martial, while he wanted practical moves that can be used when a fight broke out, he was compelled to seek more than what it receives.
Another thing that is encouraging to find and study the martial arts is a keperihatinannya see the development of foreign martial arts such rampant at that time. Though martial arts is the ancestral heritage of Indonesia as marginalized and not get attention, both from the community and from the government itself. Secondly it gives rise to a strong aspiration to become a famous martial arts teacher, martial arts and put equal or more than the foreign martial arts that developed particularly in West Java.
Ideals and desires are so strong and he followed up with frequent fasting and visited places of hermitage. At that time, Kang Djadjat leave the house for four days. Arriving at the house, Kang Djadjat are in a state of shock, unable to speak. Four days later, before she could tell everything that had happened to his brother, R. Iyan Koesoemahdinata, who became chairman of the Education Silat Tadjimalela center.
Home of wandering, he is often seen practiced in front of a mirror. He began to teach a few tricks to my friends and nearby neighbors in the region Jl.Dulatip, Bandung. Following are the step-jurusnya mature, then it occurred to him to establish an arts college. He did the night prayers and fasting, asking God Almighty to be given a name for the college arts moves that he created himself. Finally he got a clue that gave the name to the college TADJIMALELA silatnya. After receiving support from the fourth brother, then on the date August 4, 1974 diresmikanlah Tadjimalela arts college.
There are seven people who are considered as the first disciples, who dubbed PASUS (Special Forces). They are Martha Nang, Buci Budiman, Wahya, Smith AR, Barley, Oki Surya Hidayat (Ook).
After shading under IPSI 1975, Kang Djadjat began directing step-jurusnya to techniques that can be used and validated in accordance with the applicable provisions of the sport.
July 6, 1995 at the age of 50 years, Kang Djajat return to the bosom of mother earth. A message conveyed to future generations before his death: "Breathe Kudu Tadjimalela Sarebu Taun deui" or "Tadjimalela should live a thousand years."


Crow (Gallant & Galak)
Crow bird depicted in a circle shape in terms of standby 5. This is a typical movement Tadjimalela
Of Ravens headed to Maung (Human-Human Superior noble)
Man who lament Kanu Court. The point is not to blame outside themselves, yet constantly coming into and confront all the knights faced.

nevertheless Crow
• Taken from one moment Tadjimalela.
• Have a mercurial nature with a keen sense of smell.
• Psychologically has magical charisma.
• Black color (in bhs.sunda hideung) has the meaning of the initiative.

Pentagon shape
• Philosophy of education ie Panca Darma.
Circles In Orange Colour
• It symbolizes the spirit of upholding the truth.
• Drawing hearts ablaze as the moon.
color Blue
• Each step movement always seek refuge in the Lord Almighty.
Outer Circle
• Symbolizing zero (no) or non-recognition
• Surrender / submit
Gold Color
• Behaviour Panca Darma people will bear invaluable.

Pencak Silat

Pencak Silat or Silat is a traditional martial art that originated from Indonesia. This martial art is widely known in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand in accordance with the spread of ethnic Malay Archipelago. Thanks to the role of the trainers from Indonesia, Vietnam now also has a formidable fighter-fighter. Parent organization in Indonesia Pencak Silat Pencak Silat is Indonesia (IPSI). Organizations that embody martial arts federations in many countries is the Guild Pencak Silat Between Nations (Persilat), formed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam.
Pencak silat martial arts is a sport that requires a lot of concentration. There is the influence of Chinese culture, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam in the martial arts.  Usually every region in Indonesia has a typical martial arts school. For example, the region of West Java is famous and Cikalong Cimande flow, there is a stream in Central Java Merpati Putih and no flow in East Java Shield Yourself.  Every four years in Indonesia there is a national level martial arts matches in National Sports Week. Pencak silat also competed in the SEA Games since 1987. Outside Indonesia also have a lot of fans of martial arts such as Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States.
At the national level exercise through games and sports martial arts to be one means of unifying the archipelago, even to the name of the nation, and a nation's identity. Sports martial arts has competed on an international scale. In Indonesia a lot of streams in martial arts, with many stream shows the cultural wealth that exists in Indonesia with the values ​​in it.

The term martial arts is widely known in Southeast Asia, but in Indonesia the term used is martial arts. This term is used since 1948 to unite the various streams of traditional martial arts that developed in Indonesia.  The name "martial" is used in Java, while the "arts" is used in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. In development now term "martial" emphasizes the elements of art and the beauty of the appearance of movement, while the "arts" is the core teaching of martial arts in a fight.

Ancestors of Indonesia has had a way of self-defense which is intended to protect and preserve life or a group of natural challenge.  They created the martial imitating animal movements that exist in the surrounding environment, such as the movement of monkeys, tigers, snakes, or eagle . The origin of martial arts in the archipelago also probably evolved from the skills of the native tribes of Indonesia in hunting and fighting with machetes, shields, and spears, such as in the tradition of Nias tribe, which until the 20th century relatively untouched outside influences.
Silat is expected to spread across the archipelago since the 7th century BC, but its origin can not be determined with certainty. Great kingdoms, such as Srivijaya and Majapahit mentioned have great warrior-warrior who mastered martial arts and can muster soldiers in self-defense mastery reliable. Researchers silat Donald F. Draeger found evidence of martial arts can be seen from a variety of weapons recovered artifacts from the classical period (Hindu-Buddhist) and the sculptured reliefs containing attitudes horses arts in Prambanan and Borobudur. In his book, Draeger wrote that arms martial arts and martial arts are inseparable, not only in body work alone, but also on the spiritual relationship that is closely associated with the culture of Indonesia. Meanwhile, Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005). found that there was the influence of martial arts from China and India in the martial arts. This is because since the beginning Malay culture has been influenced by the culture brought by traders and immigrants from India, China, and other foreign countries.
Pencak silat has been recognized by the majority Malay community in a variety of names.  In Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, silat is better known as the gayong and insufficient flow.  In Thailand, martial arts known as bersilat, and in the Philippines south known as pasilat. From the name, it is known that the term "martial arts" the most widespread, so it is suspected tat this martial spread from Sumatra to the various regions of the shoreline of Southeast Asia. 

Arts tradition handed down orally and spread by word of mouth, from teacher to student teach, so that a written record of the origin of martial arts is hard to find. History is told through the martial arts legend varied from one region to another. Legend Minangkabau, silat (Minangkabau language: silek) created by Datuk Suri of Kings of Pariangan, Tanah Datar at the foot of Mount Marapi in the 11th century. Then silek taken and developed by the nomads Minang throughout Southeast Asia. Similarly, the origin of folklore arts Cimande flow, which tells of a woman who modeled the movement of a fight between a tiger and a monkey. Each region generally has a martial character (warrior) to be proud of, such as the character King Siliwangi Pajajaran Sundanese martial arts, Hang Tuah commander of Malacca, Gajah Mada Mahapatih Majapahit [citation needed] and Pitung of Batavia. [Citation needed ]
Development of the arts has historically started carrying when the distribution is heavily influenced by the Muslim missionaries in the 14th century in the archipelago. At that martial arts are taught together with the mosque or religious instruction in schools. Silat is a part of spiritual practice. In the culture of some ethnic groups in Indonesia, the martial arts are an integral part in a customary ceremony. For example Randai dance art that no other Minangkabau silek movement often featured in various events and custom event Minangkabau. In a traditional wedding procession there Betawi tradition "doorstop", ie Betawi arts demonstration is packaged in a small theater. This event is usually held before the ceremony, which is a small drama that tells the groom's entourage on his way to the bride's home were intercepted by warlords (warrior) who told local villagers also put a heart to the bride. Then there was a fight in the middle of the street arts champion-champion barriers between the warrior-warrior bridesmaids man of course was won by the guards of the groom.
Silat then evolved from martial arts and folk dance, a part of the education to defend the country to face the alien invaders. In the history of the struggle against the Dutch, there were the warriors who took up arms, as Panembahan Senopati, Sultan Agung, Prince Diponegoro, Teuku Cik Di Tiro, Teuku Umar, Imam Bonjol and women warriors, such as Nan Aluih Sabai, Cut Nyak Dien, and Cut Nyak Meutia.
Silat is now acknowledged as the Malay culture in a broad sense,  which the people of the coast of the island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, as well as various other ethnic groups who use Malay lingua franca in many parts of Java, Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi , and the islands of others who also developed this martial art.
Recognizing the importance of developing the role of martial arts it is deemed necessary to the organization of a national martial arts, which can also bind martial arts schools across Indonesia. On May 18, 1948, formed the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) IPSI is now listed as the oldest national arts organization in the world.
On March 11, 1980, Pencak Silat Association between nations (Persilat) was established on the initiative of Eddie M. Nalapraya (Indonesia), who was then chairman of the IPSI. The event was also attended by representatives from Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam.  The four countries, including Indonesia, are set as the founder Persilat. 
Several national arts organizations include the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) in Indonesia, the Guild Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) in Malaysia, Singapore Silat Guild (EXACTLY) in Singapore, and Brunei Darussalam Guild Silat (PERSIB) in Brunei. Has grown well parried dozens of universities in the United States and Europe. Silat has now officially entered the sport in an international, notably competed in the SEA Games.

Martial arts in the world
Pencak Silat has grown rapidly during the 20th century and has been a sports competition under the control and regulation Persilat (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Between Nations, or the International Pencak Silat Federation). Pencak Silat is being promoted by Persilat in several countries across 5 continents, with the goal of making martial arts became an Olympic sport. Persilat promote Pencak Silat as international sports competitions. Only members are allowed to participate Persilat recognized in international competition.
Now, some European national federations of martial arts along with Persilat have established the European Federation of Pencak Silat. In 1986 the World Pencak Silat Championships first outside Asia, takes place in Vienna, Austria.
Pencak silat and dipertandingan first introduced in the Southeast Asia Games (SEA Games) to 14th in 1987 in Jakarta. Until now, the sport of martial arts routines competed in the SEA Games. In 2002 Pencak Silat program was introduced as part of a show at the Asian Games in Busan, South Korea for the first time. Last World Championship was in 2010 took place in Jakarta, Indonesia in December 2010.
Aside from making the effort Persilat martial arts as sports, there are many schools of traditional old martial art that develops with the name Silek and Silat in different parts of the world. It is estimated there are hundreds of streams (style) and thousands of college.