Pencak Silat or Silat is a traditional martial art that originated from Indonesia. This martial art is widely known in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand in accordance with the spread of ethnic Malay Archipelago. Thanks to the role of the trainers from Indonesia, Vietnam now also has a formidable fighter-fighter. Parent organization in Indonesia Pencak Silat Pencak Silat is Indonesia (IPSI). Organizations that embody martial arts federations in many countries is the Guild Pencak Silat Between Nations (Persilat), formed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam.
Pencak silat martial arts is a sport that requires a lot of concentration. There is the influence of Chinese culture, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam in the martial arts. Usually every region in Indonesia has a typical martial arts school. For example, the region of West Java is famous and Cikalong Cimande flow, there is a stream in Central Java Merpati Putih and no flow in East Java Shield Yourself. Every four years in Indonesia there is a national level martial arts matches in National Sports Week. Pencak silat also competed in the SEA Games since 1987. Outside Indonesia also have a lot of fans of martial arts such as Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States.
At the national level exercise through games and sports martial arts to be one means of unifying the archipelago, even to the name of the nation, and a nation's identity. Sports martial arts has competed on an international scale. In Indonesia a lot of streams in martial arts, with many stream shows the cultural wealth that exists in Indonesia with the values in it.
The term martial arts is widely known in Southeast Asia, but in Indonesia the term used is martial arts. This term is used since 1948 to unite the various streams of traditional martial arts that developed in Indonesia. The name "martial" is used in Java, while the "arts" is used in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. In development now term "martial" emphasizes the elements of art and the beauty of the appearance of movement, while the "arts" is the core teaching of martial arts in a fight.
Ancestors of Indonesia has had a way of self-defense which is intended to protect and preserve life or a group of natural challenge. They created the martial imitating animal movements that exist in the surrounding environment, such as the movement of monkeys, tigers, snakes, or eagle . The origin of martial arts in the archipelago also probably evolved from the skills of the native tribes of Indonesia in hunting and fighting with machetes, shields, and spears, such as in the tradition of Nias tribe, which until the 20th century relatively untouched outside influences.
Silat is expected to spread across the archipelago since the 7th century BC, but its origin can not be determined with certainty. Great kingdoms, such as Srivijaya and Majapahit mentioned have great warrior-warrior who mastered martial arts and can muster soldiers in self-defense mastery reliable. Researchers silat Donald F. Draeger found evidence of martial arts can be seen from a variety of weapons recovered artifacts from the classical period (Hindu-Buddhist) and the sculptured reliefs containing attitudes horses arts in Prambanan and Borobudur. In his book, Draeger wrote that arms martial arts and martial arts are inseparable, not only in body work alone, but also on the spiritual relationship that is closely associated with the culture of Indonesia. Meanwhile, Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005). found that there was the influence of martial arts from China and India in the martial arts. This is because since the beginning Malay culture has been influenced by the culture brought by traders and immigrants from India, China, and other foreign countries.
Pencak silat has been recognized by the majority Malay community in a variety of names. In Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, silat is better known as the gayong and insufficient flow. In Thailand, martial arts known as bersilat, and in the Philippines south known as pasilat. From the name, it is known that the term "martial arts" the most widespread, so it is suspected tat this martial spread from Sumatra to the various regions of the shoreline of Southeast Asia.
Arts tradition handed down orally and spread by word of mouth, from teacher to student teach, so that a written record of the origin of martial arts is hard to find. History is told through the martial arts legend varied from one region to another. Legend Minangkabau, silat (Minangkabau language: silek) created by Datuk Suri of Kings of Pariangan, Tanah Datar at the foot of Mount Marapi in the 11th century. Then silek taken and developed by the nomads Minang throughout Southeast Asia. Similarly, the origin of folklore arts Cimande flow, which tells of a woman who modeled the movement of a fight between a tiger and a monkey. Each region generally has a martial character (warrior) to be proud of, such as the character King Siliwangi Pajajaran Sundanese martial arts, Hang Tuah commander of Malacca, Gajah Mada Mahapatih Majapahit  and Pitung of Batavia. [Citation needed ]
Development of the arts has historically started carrying when the distribution is heavily influenced by the Muslim missionaries in the 14th century in the archipelago. At that martial arts are taught together with the mosque or religious instruction in schools. Silat is a part of spiritual practice. In the culture of some ethnic groups in Indonesia, the martial arts are an integral part in a customary ceremony. For example Randai dance art that no other Minangkabau silek movement often featured in various events and custom event Minangkabau. In a traditional wedding procession there Betawi tradition "doorstop", ie Betawi arts demonstration is packaged in a small theater. This event is usually held before the ceremony, which is a small drama that tells the groom's entourage on his way to the bride's home were intercepted by warlords (warrior) who told local villagers also put a heart to the bride. Then there was a fight in the middle of the street arts champion-champion barriers between the warrior-warrior bridesmaids man of course was won by the guards of the groom.
Silat then evolved from martial arts and folk dance, a part of the education to defend the country to face the alien invaders. In the history of the struggle against the Dutch, there were the warriors who took up arms, as Panembahan Senopati, Sultan Agung, Prince Diponegoro, Teuku Cik Di Tiro, Teuku Umar, Imam Bonjol and women warriors, such as Nan Aluih Sabai, Cut Nyak Dien, and Cut Nyak Meutia.
Silat is now acknowledged as the Malay culture in a broad sense, which the people of the coast of the island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, as well as various other ethnic groups who use Malay lingua franca in many parts of Java, Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi , and the islands of others who also developed this martial art.
Recognizing the importance of developing the role of martial arts it is deemed necessary to the organization of a national martial arts, which can also bind martial arts schools across Indonesia. On May 18, 1948, formed the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) IPSI is now listed as the oldest national arts organization in the world.
On March 11, 1980, Pencak Silat Association between nations (Persilat) was established on the initiative of Eddie M. Nalapraya (Indonesia), who was then chairman of the IPSI. The event was also attended by representatives from Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. The four countries, including Indonesia, are set as the founder Persilat.
Several national arts organizations include the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) in Indonesia, the Guild Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) in Malaysia, Singapore Silat Guild (EXACTLY) in Singapore, and Brunei Darussalam Guild Silat (PERSIB) in Brunei. Has grown well parried dozens of universities in the United States and Europe. Silat has now officially entered the sport in an international, notably competed in the SEA Games.
Martial arts in the world
Now, some European national federations of martial arts along with Persilat have established the European Federation of Pencak Silat. In 1986 the World Pencak Silat Championships first outside Asia, takes place in Vienna, Austria.
Pencak silat and dipertandingan first introduced in the Southeast Asia Games (SEA Games) to 14th in 1987 in Jakarta. Until now, the sport of martial arts routines competed in the SEA Games. In 2002 Pencak Silat program was introduced as part of a show at the Asian Games in Busan, South Korea for the first time. Last World Championship was in 2010 took place in Jakarta, Indonesia in December 2010.
Aside from making the effort Persilat martial arts as sports, there are many schools of traditional old martial art that develops with the name Silek and Silat in different parts of the world. It is estimated there are hundreds of streams (style) and thousands of college.