Wednesday, December 26, 2012


A forest is an area with a dense overgrown by trees and other vegetation. Such areas are in the vast areas of the world and serves as a reservoir of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide sink), animal habitats, hidrologika flow modulators, and soil conservers, and is one aspect of the Earth's most important biosphere.
Forests are life forms that spread throughout the world. We can find a nice forest in tropical and cold climates, in the lowlands and in the mountains, on a small island and the continent.
The forest is a collection of herbs and plants, especially trees or other woody plants, which occupy large areas.
The tree itself is high enough plant life to years. So, is different vegetables or grains that live one season only. The tree also is noticeably different because a principal has a long upright woody and form canopy (crown leaves) is clear.
A collection of trees is considered forest if able to create a climate and environmental conditions of local specialties, which is different than in the outer regions. If we were in a tropical rain forest, it was like coming into a warm, moist steam, which is different than the surrounding farming areas. The landscape was different. This means that all the other plants and animals (up to the smallest detail), and various other non-living elements, including the parts that are an integral constituent of the forest.
Forest as an ecosystem not only save natural resources such as timber, but still a lot of potential non-timber that can be taken advantage of by society through the cultivation of agricultural crops on forest land. As a function of forest ecosystems play an important role in many aspects such as the provider of water, producing oxygen, where millions live flora and fauna, and the role of balancing the environment and prevent global warming. As a function of the water provider for the life of the forest is one of the most important, this is because the forest is growing millions of plants.

Forest fragments

Imagine slicing a cross forest. Forest seemed to consist of three parts, the above ground parts of the surface of the ground, and the underground.
If we trace the forest on the ground, it will show the canopy (crown) of trees, stems kekayuan, and lower plants such as shrubs and bushes. In natural forests, canopy trees usually look layered as there are different types of trees that began growing at different times.
On the surface, it appears a variety of shrubs, grasses, and litter. Litter is also called 'forest floor', though it is more akin to the tapestry. Litter is glowing all the trunks, branches, leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruit. Litter has an important role as a source of humus, which is the top layer of soil is fertile. Litter is also a home to various insects and micro-organisms. Interestingly, the residents actually eat litter, it's their home; crushing All plants and animals in the world, as well as humans, have to adapt to the environment in which they are located. If a particular type of plant or animal can adapt to the physical environment in a particular area, then they will be able to thrive in the area. If not, they are knocked out of place. For example, we find mangroves in shallow sea water inundation areas for tree species is resistant to salt water and having breathing roots are in accordance with the nature of the soil and hot climate of the coast.
Conversely, how many plants and animals survive will affect their physical environment, particularly land, albeit on a limited basis. Plants and animals that share the same life even more interplay between them. To be able to survive in a particular environment, a variety of plants and animals must choose between competing and fellowship. Birds herons, for example, wild bison descend back to get lice as food. In contrast, wild bison helped because he was free from the source of the disease.
Thus, forests are life forms that thrive with very distinctive, complex, and dynamic. In the end, how all the constituent forests adapt to each other will result in some form of climax, a form of plant and animal communities best suited to the environment are available. As a result, we saw the climax forest in different form, for example: savannah forest, deciduous forest, tropical rainforest, and others.

Types of Forests

Foresters try to classify forests according to their distinctive Visibility. The aim is to enable people to recognize the distinctive nature of the forest. By identifying the real nature of a forest, we will treat the forest more accurately so that the forest can be sustainable, even growing.
There are different types of forest. Differentiation forest types also vary as well. For example:
According to the original
We know the forest comes from the seeds, buds, and a mixture of seeds and buds.
Forest derived from the seeds of so-called 'high forest' because the trees are grown from seed tend to be higher and can reach more advanced age.
Forest from bud-called 'low forest' for the opposite reason.
Mixed forest, therefore, called 'forests being'.
Another classification is according to the original
Virgin forest (primary) is the pristine forests and has not been opened by humans.
Secondary forest is a forest that grows back naturally after a cut or damage is quite extensive. As a result, secondary forest trees often look shorter and smaller. However, if left undisturbed for a long time, we will be hard to distinguish the secondary forest from primary forest. Under appropriate conditions, the secondary forest will be able to recover a primary forest after hundreds of years old.
By way of regeneration (regrowth)
Forests can be distinguished as a forest with natural regeneration, artificial regeneration, and the regeneration mix. Forests with natural regeneration means flower trees and acorns scattered diserbuk not by man, but by wind, water, or animals. Forest regeneration by artificial means man accidentally pollinate flowers and disperse seeds to regrow forest. Mixed forest with regeneration means a mixture of the two previous types.
In temperate regions, flowering occurs in a short time, often do not take place every year, and more through wind pollination. In the tropics, flowering occurs most of the year and almost every year. As an exception, inflorescence dipterocarp trees (meranti) in Kalimantan and Sumatra happens regularly. In particular, simultaneous flowering meranti wood, but in subsequent years meranti did not bloom. Meranti wood flower season is an opportunity to see the seeds of meranti which has a pair of wings to hover in the wind.
According to the arrangement of the type
Based on the arrangement of its kind, we know the type of forest and mixed forest. Forest type, or a pristine forest, trees that have mostly come from one type, although this does not mean there is only one type. Forests can grow naturally kind of good because the climate and soil properties that are difficult or because of certain tree species more aggressive. For example, tusam forest (pine) in Aceh and Kerinci formed by extensive forest fires have occurred and only tusam tree species survive. Forests can also be a kind of artificial forest, which is only one or a few key species such deliberately planted by humans, as has been done in the fields HTI (forest plantations).
Another classification is based on the order type of needle leaf forest (conifers) and broad leaf forest. Needle leaf forest (such as the pine forests) are generally found in colder climates, while broadleaf forests (such as meranti wood) usually found in the tropics.
According to age
We can distinguish forests as forests age (roughly the same age) and not the rest of the forest. Natural forests and forest natural regeneration is usually not rest. Forest plantation forests may rest or not the rest of the forest.
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Based on geographical location:
tropical forests, the forests in equatorial
temperate forests, the forests in the four seasons (between latitudes 23.5 º - 66 º).
boreal forest, forest in the polar circumference.
Based on seasonal properties:
rain forest (rainforest), with lots of rainy season.
evergreen forests (evergreen forest)
monsoon forest or deciduous leaves (deciduous forest)
savanna forest (forest savannah), in places kemaraunya season long. Etc..
forest tour
By the height of the place:
coastal forests (forest beach)
lowland forest (Lowland forest)
lower montane forest (sub-mountain forest)
upper montane forests (mountain forest)
forest fog (mist forest)
elfin forest (alpine forest)
Based on the terrain:
freshwater swamp forest or swamp forest (freshwater swamp-forest)
peat swamp forest (peat-swamp forest)
mangrove swamp forest, or mangrove (mangrove forest)
Forest Heath (heath forest)
forest soil lime (limestone forest), and others
Based on the dominant tree species:
teak wood (teak forest), for example, in East Java.
pine forests (pine forest), in Aceh.
dipterocarp forest (dipterocarp forest), in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
eucalypt forests (eucalyptus forest) in Nusa Tenggara. Etc..
Based on the properties of manufacture:
natural forest (natural forest)
forests of artificial (man-made forest), for example:
forests (community forest)
urban forest (urban forest)
plantations (timber or timber plantation estates) Etc.

Forest City in Singapore
Based on the management goals:
production forests, which are managed to produce timber or non-timber forest products (non-timber forest products)
forests, managed to protect soil and water management
National Parks
forest nature reserve, managed to protect biodiversity or natural beauty
forest conversion, which is a reserved forest for other uses, can be converted to non-forest management.

Arjuna mountain slopes in areas Sumberawan, Singosari district, Malang regency
In fact, often several distinguishing factors that join and build the properties of typical forest. For example, lowland tropical rainforest (Lowland tropical rainforest), or a hill dipterocarp forest (hilly dipterocarp forest). Community forests, often constructed in the form of a mixture of forest plants with short-term crops, thus referred to as agroforestry or agroforest.


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